Islamic Azad university
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Ostrich Research Group
Islamic Azad university
University of Zabol
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
An experiment was conducted to assess the optimal levels of dietary lysine (Lys) in Japanese quail from 7 to 21 days of age. A dose-response diet was formulated to be adequate in all amino acid concentrations with the exception of Lys. Different levels of supplemental L-Lysine.HCl were added to the doseresponse diet at the expense of corn starch, sodium bicarbonate, and NaCl to create 6 levels of Lys ranged from 0.91% to 1.51% in diet. Optimal Lys for feed conversion ratio, breast meat yield, and thigh meat yield were estimated at 1.15%, 1.21%, and 1.16% of diet, respectively, based on linear broken-line regression. With quadratic broken-line regression, the Lys requirements for body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, thigh meat yield, and breast meat yield were estimated at 1.27%, 1.21%, 1.32%, and 1.34% of diet, respectively. Overall, Lys requirements of starting Japanese quail may be at least 1.34% of diet for optimizing carcass attributes fed low-CP dose-response diet.
این پژوهش به منظور تعیین احتیاجات لیزین بلدرچین ژاپنی بر اساس قابلیت هضم در دامنه سنی 21-7 روزگی انجام شد. سطوح درجه بندی شـده ال- لیزین هیدروکلراید در ازای حذف همان مقدار نشاسته ذرت به جیره پایه اضافه شد تا سطوح مختلف لیزین قابل هضم از 75/0 تا 35/1 درصد جیـره بدست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش سطح لیزین قابل هضم جیره افزایش وزن بدن، ضریب تبدیل خوراک، مصرف خوراک و وزن گوشـت سـینه و وزن ران به طور معنی دار تغییر میکند. از روشهای مدل سازی خط شکسته خطی و خط شکسته درجه دو بر اساس نقطه شکست بـرای تعیـین میـزان احتیاجات لیزین قابل هضم استفاده گردید. بر اساس خط شکسته خطی، نقطه شکست برای ضریب تبدیل غذایی و وزن ماهیچه سینه به ترتیب 99/0 و 04/1 درصد لیزین قابل هضم جیره و بر اساس خط شکسته درجه دو نقطه شکست برای افزایش وزن بدن، ضریب تبدیل غذایی و وزن ماهیچه سینه به ترتیب 11/1 ،04/1 و 15/1 درصد لیزین قابل هضم جیره به دست آمد. این نتایج نشان داد که مقدار احتیاجات لیزین قابل هضم برای حداکثر وزن سینه بیش از احتیاجات برای افزایش وزن بدن و ضریب تبدیل غذایی است.
A uniform design (UD) was used to construct models to explain the growth response of Japanese quails to dietary metabolizable energy (ME), and digestible methionine (dMet) and lysine (dLys) under tropical condition. In total, 100 floor pens with seven birds each were fed 25 UD different diets containing 25 ME (2808-3092 kcal/kg), dMet (0.31- 0.49% of diet), and dLys (0.91-1.39% of diet) levels from 7 to 14 d of age. A platform of artificial neural network based on UD (ANN-UD) was generated to describe the growth response of the birds to dietary inputs using random search. Artificial neural networks of body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were optimized using random search algorithm. The optimization the ANN-UD results showed that maximum BWG may be achieved with 2995 kcal ME/kg, 0.45% dMet, and 1.18% dLys of diet; and minimum FCR may be obtained with 3000 kcal ME/kg, 0.45% dMet, and 1.17% dLys of diet. The result of this study showed that a ANN and UD hybrid model can be used successfully to optimize the nutritional requirements of quail chicks.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Mentha spicata on growth performance, carcass attributes, blood variables, antimicrobial activity of the gut, and meat quality in growing Japanese quail. A total of 300, 7-day-old quail chicks were fed five experimental diets containing different levels of dietary M. spicata (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4% of diet) until 35 days of age. Statistical analysis showed that the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was not significantly affected by dietary treatments during the experimentation. However, body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) were significantly affected by different levels of dietary M. spicata from 7–14, 7–21, and 7–28 d of age. At earlier stage of rearing, high levels of dietary M. spicata significantly decreased BWG and FI in chicks (P < 0.05). Regarding the whole of experiment, no significant effects of treatment were observed on growth performance and carcass attributes of quail chicks. Dried M. spicata showed a hypocholesterolaemic effect on serum composition. Regression analysis revealed that the lowest cholesterol concentration may be obtained with 1.17% (0.79 ≤ 1.17 ≤ 1.53) of dietary M. spicata and the lowest low density lipoprotein (LDL) may be achieved with 2.46% (1.07 ≤ 2.46 ≤ 3.86) of dietary M. spicata. No significant differences were observed for protein components (e.g. total protein and albumin) in the sera of quail chicks. At 3% of diet, M. spicata significantly decreased the CFU of Escherichia coli, whereas, the Lactobacilli population has been increased. The antioxidant potency of meat slices was increased with inclusion of M. spicata in the diet compared to control diet (1 and 2% of M. spicata). However, oxidative stability was significantly higher in thigh meat than breast meat. In conclusion, at lower levels of dietary M. spicata meat quality and blood profile could be improved and higher levels of dried M. spicata may be needed to improve microbial ecosystem of small intestine in quail chicks.
بهمنظور بررسی اثرات افزودن سطوح مختلف منابع نمک معدنی، کیلات و نانو آهن به جیره بر عملکرد، ذخیره آهن در بافتها و کیفیت گوشت بلدرچین ژاپنی، آزمایشی با تعداد 400 قطعه بلدرچین ژاپنی نر در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 10 تیمار آزمایشی و چهار تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل یک جیره پایه فاقد مکمل آهن (شاهد) و جیرههای پایه مکملشده با سطوح 60، 90 و120 میلیگرم در کیلوگرم سولفات، کیلات و نانو آهن بودند. پرندگانی که با مقدار 120 میلیگرم در کیلوگرم کیلات آهن تغذیه شدند، افزایش وزن بیشتری نسبت به گروههای شاهد، 60 و 120 میلیگرم سولفات داشتند )05/0>(P. تغذیه 90 و 120 میلیگرم نانو آهن باعث بهبود ضریب تبدیل خوراک در مقایسه با گروههای شاهد، سولفات و 60 میلیگرم کیلات آهن شد )05/0>(P. پرندگانی که با 90 و 120 میلیگرم در کیلوگرم کیلات و 120 میلی گرم نانو آهن تغذیه شدند، دارای آهن بیشتری در گوشت سینه نسبت به گروههای سولفات و شاهد بودند )05/0>(P. گروه 120 میلیگرم در کیلوگرم کیلات آهن ظرفیت نگهداری آب بیشتری را نسبت به تیمارهای شاهد، 60 و 90 میلیگرم سولفات، 60 میلیگرم کیلات و 90 میلیگرم نانو آهن و مقدار مالون دی آلدهید کمتر از گروه شاهد و 60 میلیگرم سولفات آهن داشت )05/0>(P. گروه 120 میلیگرم نانو آهن، میزان آهن کبد و سرم خون بیشتر و افت ناشی از پخت کمتر در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد داشت )05/0>(P. در پژوهش حاضر، اشکال و سطوح مختلف آهن، بر پارامترهای مورد بررسی، اثر متغیری داشتند.
An experiment was conducted to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and amino acid requirements of growing Japanese quail based on ideal protein concept using artificial neural network and desirability function (D‐ANN). Seven‐day‐old quail chicks were assigned to nine experimental diets based on central composite design (CCD) containing five levels of AME (2809–3091 kcal/kg) and CP (19–24.8% of diet). The ratio of lysine (Lys) to CP was set at 0.053 among all treatments, and remaining essential amino acids (EAA) were adjusted to Lys. The experimental data of CCD were fitted to D‐ANN model to compute the optimal values for independent variables. The optimal values of inputs including AME, CP, digestible Lys (dLys), methionine (dMet), total sulphur amino acids (dTSAA), threonine (dThr), tryptophan (dTrp), isoleucine (dIle), valine (dVal) and arginine (dArg) for maximizing gain and minimizing feed conversion ratio were estimated at 2865 kcal/kg, 25, 1.32, 0.55, 0.88, 0.84, 0.20, 0.75, 1.04 and 1.45% of diet, respectively, with D (desirability function) = 0.94. The corresponding optimal amounts of amino acids based on total amino acids were 1.42, 0.59, 0.95, 0.90, 0.22, 0.81, 1.12 and 1.56% of diet respectively. The ideal pattern of essential amino acids to Lys was as follows: dMet: dLys = 0.42, dTSAA: dLys = 0.67, dThr: dLys = 0.64, dTrp: dLys = 0.15, dIle: dLys = 0.57, dVal: dLys = 0.79 and dArg: dLys = 1.09. The results of this study showed that amino acid requirements of modern quails might be higher than those reported by NRC.
The optimization of dietary phosphorus (P) depends on precise details of the P availability in feed ingredients to avoid excess or deficient P in a mixed diet. This study was carried out to measure the apparent ileal digestibility of P for corn, wheat, soybean meal, and corn gluten meal in growing Japanese quails from 28 to 32 d posthatch. A total of 400 quail chicks were randomly distributed across 5 treatments with 4 replicates and 20 birds in each floor pen. The P-free diet (PFD) was formulated based on cornstarch to measure the basal endogenous P losses (EPL). Digestibility coefficients were determined by ileal digesta sampling using TiO2 as an indigestible marker. The EPL was estimated at 384 mg/kg DMI. The apparent ileal P digestibility (AIPD) for corn, soybean meal, wheat, and corn gluten meal were determined to be 0.38, 0.53, 0.38, and 0.78, respectively. The corresponding values for true ileal P digestibility (TIPD) were 0.48, 0.61, 0.50, and 0.83, respectively. The t-test analysis showed that the difference of AIPD and TIPD values for corn (P = 0.031) and wheat (P = 0.015) were statistically significant, however, no significant differences were observed for corn gluten meal (P = 0.318) and soybean meal (P = 0.104). In conclusion, the correction of AIPD coefficients for EPL in low-P ingredients such as corn and wheat may be much more important than that in high-P feedstuffs such as corn gluten meal and soybean meal in growing quails.
Te aim of this study was to compare the growth pattern of seven strains of Japanese quail including Wild, Italian Speckled,Tuxedo, Scarlett, English white, White button, and A&M Texas by nonlinear growth functions including Gompertz, Richards, logistic, Lopez, and Weibull functions. Te body weights of the unselected randomly bred populations of these strains were measured weekly from 1 to 42 days of age and then used to ft functions. Te ftness of each function was assessed by statistics including the mean square error, Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, and adjusted coefcient of determination. Te results showed that Gompertz was the best function for describing the growth curve in Italian Speckled and Wild strains; however, the best function for the other strains was the logistic function. Te maximum and minimum values for age and weight at the inﬂection point were obtained for the White button and Scarlett strains, respectively. Te weight to age ratio at the inﬂection point was maximized for Italian Speckled. Te best growth rate was observed for the Italian Speckled strain, whereas the White button strain exhibited the worst growth rate. In conclusion, the Italian Speckled strain had the best properties among the tested strains for breeding as broiler poultry.