دانشگاه فردوسي مشهد
دانشگاه فردوسي مشهد
دانشگاه فردوسي مشهد
گروه پژوهشی گاو سیستانی
کاربرد سیستم های خنک کننده در فصول گرم سال می تواند موجب بهبود عملکرد سیستم آنتی اکسیدانی خون شود. هدف: این آزمابش به منظور بررسی مزایای کاریرد سیستم های خنک کننده در فصول گرم سال بر روی وضعیت ایمنی و آنتی اکسیدانی و همچنین شمار سلول های خونی گاوهای شیری در اوایل شیردهیانجام پذیرفت.
This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and quantity of carcass and non-carcass components of 2- and 3-year-old male camels fattened for either 3 or 6 months. Twelve 2-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 268.5 ± 21.4 kg and twelve 3-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 307.5 ± 29.9 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. For carcass analysis, three camels from each group were selected and slaughtered. The results showed that camel age and fattening period had no significant effect on average daily gain (ADG). Older camels and a longer fattening period resulted in heavier hot and cold carcass weights. Three-yearold camels had a higher dressing percentage compared to 2year-old camels, regardless of the period of fattening. Analysis of non-carcass components showed that the heaviest component was the hide and 2-year-old camels fattened for 90 days had the greatest weight of hide as percentage of cold carcass weight. Total muscle weight was greater for the 3-year-old camels compared to the 2-year-old ones, regardless of the fattening period, and camels fattened for 180 days had heavier weight than those fattened for 90 days, regardless of age at fattening. However, the greatest weight of total muscle was detected in camels at 2 years of age fattened for 180 days when it was expressed as percentage of carcass weight. The highest and the lowest total fat content as kilogram or as percentage of cold carcass was observed in 3-year-old camels fattened for 180 days and 2-year-old camels fattened for 180 days, respectively. Our results suggested that the best age for slaughtering is 2 years old with the fattening period of 180 days.
This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acids profile of six predominant date seed cultivars grown in Iran including Barhi, Estamaran, Mazafati, Khasi, Kharak and Zahedi and the biological effects of their tannins based on in vitro gas production. Organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME) and concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were estimated after 24 h of incubation without or with inclusion of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Results showed that date seeds of all cultivars contained high amount of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ether extract (EE) and total phenolics (TP), which ranged from 689 to 782, 82 to 118 and 41 to 110 g/kg DM, respectively. However, they had low levels of crude protein (CP) (50 to 69 g/kg DM) and ash (10 to 26 g/kg DM). Gas chromatography revealed that the major unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (40.13 to 46.35 g/100 g fatty acids), while the main saturated fatty acid was lauric acid (20.96 to 26.25 g/100 g fatty acids). Except for Estamaran, all cultivars had low OMD (<334 g/kg DM) and ME (<4.1 MJ/kg DM). Inclusion of PEG increased gas volume (GV), OMD, ME and SCFA (P<0.05) suggesting the inhibitory effect of date seed tannins on microbial fermentation. Total tannins were negatively correlated with nutritive value (OMD and ME) of date seeds. It can be concluded that despite low digestibility and ME, date seed may be considered as an alternative feed because of high amount of structural carbohydrates and EE.
سابقه و هدف: درمناطق خشک و نیمه خشک، گونههای حیوانی که پرورش داده میشوند اغلب دامهای بومی هستند. این سیستم پرورش، ورودی کم و بهرهوری کمی دارد. منابع علوفهای که در این مناطق وجود دارد اغلب جوابگوی نیاز حیوان به صورت کمی و یا کیفی نمی-باشد. از این رو، به کار بردن راهکارهایی که بتواند منجر به افزایش راندمان استفاده از مواد مغذی موجود در علوفه برای حیوان شود، ضروری به نظر میرسد. در منطقه سیستان، علوفه نی و کاه غلات بیشترین سهم را در تغذیه تلیسههای سیستانی دارد ولی، آزمایشات درون تنی برای بررسی تاثیر علوفه نی با و بدون عمل آوری با اوره انجام نگرفته است. بنابراین، هدف از این آزمایش بررسی میزان خوراک مصرفی و قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی در تلیسههای سیستانی تغذیه شده با علوفه نی به عنوان تنها منبع خوراکی بود. مواد و روشها: 15 راس تلیسه سیستانی با میانگین وزن 26±180 کیلوگرم در قالب یک طرح کاملا تصادفی استفاده شدند. تیمارها عبارت بودند از: 1) علوفه نی بدون عمل آوری، 2) علوفه نی عمل آوری شده با 1 درصد ماده خشک اوره و 3) علوفه نی عمل آوری شده با 2 درصد ماده خشک اوره. اوره ابتدا در آب حل و به علوفه نی اضافه شد و سپس به مدت 21 روز ذخیره شدند. مصرف و قابلیت هضم مواد مغذی و برخی فراسنجههای خونی اندازهگیری شدند. یافتهها: میزان پروتئین خام علوفههای عمل آوری شده با اوره نسبت به تیمار شاهد بیشتر بود (05/0P نتیجه گیری: به طور کلی با توجه به فقیر بودن علوفه نی از لحاظ محتوای پروتئین، استفاده از 2 درصد اوره به عنوان مکمل ارزان قیمت در جیره تلیسههای سیستانی منجر به افزایش میزان پروتئین خام و متعاقب آن بهبود غیر معنیدار خوراک مصرفی و افزایش قابلیت هضم پروتئین شد و همچنین میتوان بخشی از احتیاجات پروتئینی آن را تامین کرد.
A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by‐products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP−PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP−PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p < 0.01) in goats fed 16% CP diets than those fed 14% CP diets, regardless of PBE supplementation. Supplementation of PBE tended to decrease (p = 0.09) rumen NH3‐N concentration regardless of the level of CP in the diet. Supplementation of PBE tended (p = 0.09) to decrease total purine derivatives regardless of the level of CP in the diet with no significant change in microbial nitrogen supply. Efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMNS) had a tendency (p = 0.07) to decrease in PBE supplemented diets. There was also a tendency (p = 0.10) for more EMNS in 14% CP fed goats than those fed 16% CP diets. Therefore, AS supplemented with PBE may lead to less concentration of ruminal NH3‐N because of decreased degradation of CP by rumen micro‐organisms in response to pistachio by‐products tannins.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tannic acid (TA) and pistachio by-product tannin extract (PBE) on N utilization and efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMNS) in Saanen dairy goats. The experimental design was a change over design with three treatments and three periods using six mid lactation multiparous dairy goats. Tannic acid solution and PBE were added to fresh alfalfa at ensiling to get the final concentration of about 1% tannin as dry matter (DM) basis. Dietary treatments were as follows: 1) untreated alfalfa silage (AS), 2) AS treated with TA (AS+TA) and 3) AS treated with PBE (AS+PBE). Intake of DM, organic matter (OM) and N and also milk yield and composition (as percent or as g/d) were not affected by tannin additions. A considerable shift occurred in the pattern of N excretion in goats fed PBE diet compared to control silage diet. Urinary N losses had a tendency (P<0.10) to lower (17.4 vs. 19.2 g/d) and fecal N losses was higher for goats fed AS + PBE compared with those fed the AS silage diet (14.6 vs. 12.6 g/d). As a proportion of N intake or as g N loss per d, retained N was higher (P<0.05) in goats fed AS + PBE compared to those fed the control diet. Microbial nitrogen synthesis (MN) was not affected by tannin additions. However, a trend (P<0.10) for less efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMN) was observed in tannin fed goats compared to those fed the control diet. Although, tannins added to AS may exert some beneficial effects on N utilization and also environmental N outputs, they may interfere with rumen fermentation lead to decrease in EMN in goats especially those fed with PBE.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of pistachio by-product (PBP) extracts supplemented with alfalfa hay (AH) or barley grain (BG) on microbial fermentation in an in vitro fermentation system. The total extracted phenolic compounds were 36.96, 65.78, 67.02 and 8.85% and total extracted tannin contents were 37.11, 59.64, 56.87 and 7.55% when PBP was extracted with water, ethanol 70%, methanol 80% and a mixture of chloroform and methanol, respectively. Adding the mixture of chloroform and methanol extracts to both substrates reduced the gas production (P<0.01). Most of PBP extracts caused a significant reduction (P<0.01) in ruminal ammonia compared to controls with both substrates while, the effects of PBP extracts on ammonia production were greater for BG than AH based substrate. The concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were higher (P<0.01) in all solvent extracts compared to control (except the low level of methanol PBP extract) with both substrates. Furthermore, in both substrates there was no decrease in methane productions with the addition of all extracts compared to controls. In conclusion, some of PBP extracts may have a favourable effect on rumen fermentation parameters such as gas production, ruminal ammonia and VFAs concentrations and they can also assist in developing novel feed additives for decreasing the nitrogen excretion in the ruminants.
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous ligand of a G protein-coupled receptornamed NOP. This neuropeptide has been identified as an orexigenic stimulus in the brain of birds and mammals. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether blockade or stimulation of nociceptin receptors affects adrenaline-induced feeding behaviour in broilers. In Experiment 1, birds received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Nociceptin (1–13) NH2 (potent NOP receptor agonist, 16 nmol) followed by adrenaline (80 nmol). In Experiment 2, the birds received UFP-101, (NOP receptor antagonist, 10 nmol) prior to injection of adrenaline (80 nmol). Cumulative food and water intake was measured at 2 h post-injection. When administrated alone, adrenaline significantly increased food and water intake. The ICV injection of Nociceptin (1–13) NH2 significantly increased food intake but not water intake. Pre-injection of Nociceptin (1–13) NH2 significantly increased the adrenaline-induced feeding response. The effect of adrenaline on food intake was transiently blocked by microinjection of UFP-101. UFP-101-induced anorexia was accompanied by a transient increase in water intake. The transient dipsogenic effect of UFP-101 suggests a role of endogenous N/OFQ-NOP receptor pathways in the regulation of water intake in chickens, which is food intake-independent. These results also provide further evidence for a reciprocal interaction between adrenergic receptors and N/OFQ on feeding behavior.
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of ground date seed (GDS) on intake, digestibility, and milk yield and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of lactating Holstein cows. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 replicated Latin square with eight lactating dairy cows with an average milk production of 35.5 ± 1.5 kg and 75 ± 5 days in milk (DIM). Dairy cows were fed one of the four treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6% of diet dry matter (DM) GDS in replacement of wheat bran. All diets contained the same amount of forages (alfalfa hay and corn silage). Dietary treatments had no effect on DM intake (DMI), total tract apparent digestibility, milk yield, and milk composition. Increasing GDS linearly decreased concentration of C13:0 and increased cis-9 C14:1 and trans-11 C18:1 (vaccenic acid) (P < 0.05). A linear tendency for more C16:1 content in milk fat was observed with increasing GDS (P = 0.06). Feeding GDS resulted in a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in saturated FA (SFA) but increased milk fat monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and trans FA (TFA) (P < 0.05). Therefore, low levels of GDS (up to 6%) in the diet of Holstein dairy cows can beneficially modify milk FA composition without any adverse effects on intake, digestibility, and milk yield.
To evaluate the effects of treating or supplementing common reed (Phragmites australis) with 2% urea on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility, and blood metabolites, fifteen Baluchi rams (35.4±2.3 kg body weight) were used in a completely randomized design. Treatments were as follows: 1) common reed, 2) common reed supplemented with 2% urea solution at feeding, and 3) common reed treated with 2% urea solution and stored for 21 d. Results showed that crude protein (CP) content increased with addition or treatment of urea (P<0.05). The contents of dry matter (DM) and nutrients were not affected by urea. The CP intake significantly increased in sheep fed urea whereas intake of DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and estimated energy intake (MJ/d) were not affected by supplementing with urea. Apparent digestibility of CP increased (P<0.05) in urea fed sheep and also a trend (P<0.10) for more DM and NDF digestibilities was observed in sheep fed urea treated common reed compared to control group. Blood serum urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was higher in sheep fed urea compared with control (P<0.05), however, the other blood metabolites were not affected by supplementing or treating with urea. It can be concluded that with the exception of slight increase in DM and NDF digestibilities, no significant advantage of treating common reed with urea compared with supplementing with urea was observed. However, compared to untreated and un-supplemented common reed, urea at 2% of DM increased feed efficiency and hence can be used in Baluchi sheep diet.
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of addition of walnut shell biochar (WSB) and chicken manure biochar (CMB) to dairy ewes’ diet. In in vitro experiment, the effects of different levels of WSB and CMB (0.5, 1, and 1.5% diet dry matter (DM)) on rumen fermentation characteristics were assessed in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replicates. Treatments were as follows: basal diet without biochar (control), basal diet with 0.5, 1, and 1.5% WSB, and basal diet with 0.5, 1, and 1.5% CMB. Addition of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB to the diet linearly decreased methane production and ammonia-N concentrations and increased pH compared to control (P < 0.001). Inclusion of WSB and CMB to the diet did not change volume of gas production and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and proportion of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. In the second experiment, six milking Kermanian ewes were used in a replicated Latin square design with three treatments and three 21-day periods to evaluate the effects of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB (based on results obtained from in vitro trial) on intake, digestibility, and milk yield and composition. Dietary inclusion of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB resulted in more milk yield (P < 0.01), milk protein (P < 0.05), and solids not fat (SNF) (P < 0.001). Blood glucose and total protein increased (P < 0.01) in ewes fed 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB in comparison to ewes fed control diet. Apparent digestibility coefficients of DM (P < 0.01) and OM (P < 0.10) were increased with inclusion of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB in diet. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility was also increased in WSB-fed ewes (P < 0.01). The lack of negative effects of 1% WSB and 1.5% CMB coupled with the observed reduction in methane emission and ammonia concentration and also improvement in milk production suggested that biochars can be beneficially incorporated in dairy ewes’ ration as a low-cost feed additive.
The nanotechnology is a relatively new technology that has recently entered the field of agriculture. Nanotechnology covers the integration or manipulation of individual atoms, molecules or molecular masses to a diverse array of structures allowing the production of new characteristics and traits of interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of foliar application of TiO2 nanoparticles on quantitative traits (plant height, number of branches, dry weight of shoots and roots) and the essential oil content of thyme under different levels of field capacity. Our results showed that the application of TiO2 nanoparticles had significant effects on thyme growth, while the essential oil concentrations not affected. These results imply that the application of TiO2 nanoparticles in plants increase agronomic value under reduced irrigation conditions but has not different significant on essential oil.